• Many alternative theories and models have been proposed of how people learn new categories of objects or events. Recent advances in neuroscience have provided a new means with which to test among these models. In particular, there is now good evidence that the frontal cortex and basal ganglia contribute to category learning, that medial temporal lobe structures make a more minor contribution, and that categorization rules are not represented in the visual cortex. These results support classical, rule-based models of categorization and models that assume category learning depends on procedural learning and memory. They also argue against models that assume categorization requires people to access detailed representations of previously seen category exemplars. There is also strong evidence that normal category learning is mediated by at least two separate systems. A recent neuropsychological theory of category learning that is consistent with these data is described. ()
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